Ukraine is on the south-western outskirts of the East European Plain. Most of the territory (95%) is occupied by plains with low shallow elevations, the height of which does not exceed 300 m. In the west it is Volynska, Podolska and Pridneprovska Heights, in the east - Donetsk region and Priazovskaya Heights. The dominant natural zones on the plains are mixed forests, forest steppes and steppes. About half of the land is used under the pasha, forests occupy 18% of the territory.
Ukraine has two mountain systems - Carpathians in the west and Crimean Mountains in the south. The highest point of the Carpathians within Ukraine is Mount Goverla (2061 m), simultaneously being the highest point of the country. The maximum height of the Crimean Mountains is 1545 m.
Ukraine has access to the Black Sea and the Azov Sea. The banks of the Black Sea are mainly low-lying and dismembered by bays and limans, in the south of the Crimean peninsula they are steep and mountainous. The banks of the Sea of Azov are flat and feature an abundance of sand cats.
Capital of Ukraine - Kyiv.
On most of the territory of Ukraine the climate is moderately continental, with clear seasons, and only on the southern bank of Crimea it changes to subtropical. In the southern and western regions of the country, the climate is milder than in the northern and eastern regions. In northern Ukraine, the average temperature of the coldest month, January, is -7 degrees; In the central regions it increases to -5, and in Crimea, depending on the location, it varies from -0.5 to 4. During winter, the average night temperatures from north to south change from -9 to 1, the average day temperatures from -3 to 6. Summer in Ukraine is warm, with an average temperature of July 18:20 degrees, and in Crimea - 22 degrees. In some years, the thermometer column can rise to 32. The average night temperature of July in most of Ukraine is 13 degrees, the average day temperature is 23 degrees. In Crimea, these figures are 20 and 26, respectively.
Plant and animal world
The nature of Ukraine is very diverse and picturesque. About 70.000 species of living organisms live here, with one third thought to still not be described. In forests there is a bear, elk, cosula, wild boar, wolf, fox, lynx, badger. In the forest steppe zone there are deer, chorek, suslik, kunica, wild boar; Of birds - parapot, forty ivolga. White aists are often found in villages. Wild animals have survived mainly in reserves and reserves, the most famous of which is Ascania Nova in the south of the country, formed as early as 1898 and covering an area of 11,000 hectares. It is home to both local animals and species not characteristic of Ukraine: wolf, jackal, horse Przhevalski, antelope gnu, ostrich, steppe eagle, black makeup; More than 150 species of trees and shrubs grow in the dendropark of the reserve. In forests in the north of the country there are deer, hare, wolf, kunica, wild boar.
There are about 16.000 plant species on the territory of Ukraine. The northern part of the country is located in the zone of mixed forests represented by oak-pine, rake-oak-pine and oak-rake forests. Beech, lipa, clear, maple appear in forest steppe zone in forests. The steppes are mostly open. Natural steppe vegetation has survived only in reserves. In Carpathians to heights 500 - 600 m grow mixed forests, above - coniferous from spruce, fir and pine. The slopes of the Crimean Mountains are dominated by forests made of oak, beech and pine, on the southern bank of Crimea - oak-juniper forests with an impurity of leafy and evergreen plants of Mediterranean type (strawberry tree, wild pistachios, needle, etc.). In Crimea there is the Nikitsky Botanical Garden, where a huge number of different species of plants from different parts of the world are collected.
The national currency is UAH. In 1 UAH 100 kopeks. Banknotes of500, 200, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 and 1 UAH are used, both old and new (since 1997) model; Coins of 1 UAH, 50, 25, 10, 5, 2 and 1 copeicas.
Road checks and credit cards can only be used in large cities. American Express, MasterCard and Visa cards are accepted.
Rate: 100 Ukrainian Grivna (UAH) = 27 USD
There are 47 million 732 thousand people living in Ukraine. The majority of the population (77.8%) are Ukrainians, the second largest ethnic group being Russians (17.3%). The rest of the population is represented by Belarusian, Moldovans, Crimean Tatars, Bulgarian, Wengrans, Romanians, Poles, Jews.
The majority of the population of Ukraine professes Orthodox Christianity, with 37% of believers to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 12% to the Kiev Patriarchate, 4% to the Ukrainian Autocephalic Church, 12% to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, 3% to the Roman Catholic Church. The Protestants are 27% believers. Other religions account for 4%.
Since 1990 the state language is Ukrainian. There are also Russian, Crimean-Tatars, Romanian, Polish, Hungarian languages spoken by ethnic groups.
In case of fire - 01
Militia, duty officer - 02
Ambulance - 03
Gas service (call) - 04
Holidays and days off
January 1 - New Year 's Eve
January 7 - Christmas
March 8 - International Women 's Day
May 1, 2 - Day of International Solidarity of Workers
May 9 - Victory Day
June 28 - Day of adoption of the Constitution of Ukraine
August 24 - Independence Day
These days in Ukraine are non-working. Also non-working are the days on which Easter and Trinity occur.